Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that attacks the human body when the glucose level in the blood is raised due to impairment in insulin function.
Types of diabetes :( 1)
Commonly there are only 3 main types of diabetes found in the human body generally called as
- Type 1 diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes occurs due to theattack on the pancreatic cells that produces insulin by the immune system. This type of diabetes is usually seen in children and young adults although it may occur at any stage of life. Artificial insulin is compulsory for type 1 diabetic patients for survival.
- Type 2 diabetes:
This is a very common type among people around the globe.In this type, the human body does not function properly to active the insulin hormone or completely damage the cells of insulin production. This type is generally observed in older ages or adults of about middle ages. Stress is the main cause of developing this type of diabetes. Doctors advise the diabetic patient for morning walks and stay happy.
- Gestational diabetes:
This type of diabetes is very rare and usually appears in pregnant a woman that disappears after giving birth to baby, if anyone is diagnosed with this type, it is the indication of leading towards type-2 diabetes in later years of life.
Diabetes that is inherited from parents to the new generation is called monogenic diabetes, and the other is cystic fibrosis diabetes. This is only found in babies when their family history has such types of diabetes.
Diabetic patient’s ratio:
According to the stats of 2015, in the United States, more than 30.3 million people were suffering from diabetes especially type-2 diabetes, this is 9.4 percent out of the total population. One in four peopledon’t even know that they had diabetes, and generally, the diabetic patient ratio is one among four people. This is very alarming because as mentioned above about the causes of diabetes generally age factor and stress play a vital role.
Health issues after diabetes:
Type 2 is more common in people, and if it is not controlled or managed then it will be deadly dangerous for the other body parts and develops into serious issues sometimes it causes the death of patients. The most common side effects of diabetes are:
- Heart problems
- Eye infection or damage
- Kidney failure
- Foot wounds may occur that never healed
- Dental issues
Symptoms related to diabetes:
In diabetic patients some common and major symptoms are as follows:
- Feel more hunger
- Thirst increases
- Weight will lose
- Urination increase with a darkish color
- Blurry vision
- Wounds on feet that not recover
Symptoms in Men:
Alongside general symptoms, sex drive becomes less, erectile dysfunction occurs and muscle strength becomes weak.
Symptoms in Women:
In women, urinary tract infections, itchy dry skin with white spots, and yeast infections happen.
Causes of diabetes:
There are different causes of diabetes and because of different types, the causes also vary. Some of the reasons are mentioned below respectively.
Type 1 cause:
There is no certain cause found by the doctors but there is the general theory of the doctors that the immune system of the body non-intentionally attacks on the beta cells of the pancreas that produces insulin. In some people, it was found that genes may cause this type 1 diabetes. It is also said by the doctors that it may be due to some virus that stimulates the immune system to attack the insulin cells to destroy it.
Type 2 causes:
Daily activities of human life and genetics are the two main reasons for causing this type 2 diabetes among people. Obese and overweight people are at high risk of developing diabetes.Fat belly decreases the proper functioning of insulin cells thus the blood sugar level raises that causes diabetes. If one of the family members is suffering from this type then it may pass to its upcoming generation and the newborn becomes overweight and deficient in insulin cells.
As this type is related to pregnancy that’s why it occurs during the hormonal changes of the women’s body but it does not happen to every pregnant woman. When the placenta starts to develop, then it produces the hormone that does not support the effectiveness of insulin that raises the glucose level in the human body thus swelling in feet happens and women gain extra weight during pregnancy.
Treatments for diabetes:(2)
A diabetic patient who is suffering from this disease takes medications to control and manage the blood sugar level in the body. There are many medications available to treat diabetes but are not 100℅ effective and successive.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes:
There is no other way to treat type 1 instead of insulin that acts like the body hormone on injecting in the body through a syringe. Four types of insulin are currently used for treatment. These are categories based on reaction and time effectiveness.
- Rapid-acting insulin generally starts working within 15 minutes after injecting and last for 3-4 hours.
- Short-acting insulinshows a reaction after 30 minutes and remains active for 6-8 hours.
- Intermediate-acting insulin usually starts its functioning after 1 to 2 hours and maintains the sugar levels for 12-18 hours.
- Long-acting insulin acts for 24 hours after injecting.
Treatment for type 2 diabetes:
Type 2 diabetes can be managed by diet modification and exercise. When changes done in lifestyle are not enough to treat diabetes type 2, then medication is recommended that is as follows:
- Alpha-glycosidase inhibitors- breakdown of sugar and starchy foods is slow down by this drug. Includes Acarbose ansd miglitol
- Biguanides- the amount of glucose is reduced by this drug that is made by the liver. Example is metformin
- DPP-4 inhibitors – it improves the level of blood sugar but does not drop it too low. Examples are Linagliptin, saxagliptin, and sitagliptin.